How Solar Power Works, Off-Grid System.

How Solar Power Works, On-Grid, Off-Grid And Hybrid.


Photovoltaic solar panels convert sunlight to electricity (DC). A solar inverter then converts direct current (DC power) into alternative current (AC power) that can be used for the operate of home appliances and other electrical systems.

Main Solar Power Systems Types.

1. On-grid - also referred to as a grid-tie or grid-feed solar system.
2. Off-grid - also referred to as an independent power system (SAPS).
3. Hybrid - also referred to as a solar plus battery storage with grid-connection.

Off-Grid Solar System.


Main Solar System Components

Solar panels



The majority of the solar PV module of the third generation consists of many silicone cells that generate direct DC electricity from the sun. The individual PV cells are connected to series by cables in a in the solar panel.

Note: it is light or irradiation that generates electricity in photovoltaic cells, not heat. Solar panels also known as solar modules are usually installed in strings to create a solar array in series connections.

During cloudy weather, solar PV can generate energy, but the amount of energy depends on the thickness and height of the clouds, which determines how much dispersed light can pass between the cloud.The amount of light energy is known as solar irradiation and is usually averaged by the term peak sun hours (PSH) throughout the day. The location and consideration of the orientation and angle of inclination of solar panels.

Solar Inverter

Solar panels generate DC electricity to be converted to AC electricity for home, business, etc. This is the function of the solar inverter. In a string inverter system, solar panels are connected in series and DC electricity is transmitted to a single inverter converting direct current (DC) power to alternative power (AC).Each panel has its own micro-inverter on the back of the panel in a micro-inverter system. The panel still produces DC, but is converted to AC on the roof and fed directly into the electric control panel.

Switchboard
AC electricity is sent from the inverter to the AC distribution box, where it is directed to the different circuits and appliances in your homes, companies requiring AC electricity. Any excess electricity generated by the solar system can either be sent to an off-grid or hybrid battery storage system or to the electricity grid if you have an on-grid system. Hybrid systems can export excess power and also store excess power in a battery.


Off-Grid System
The off-grid system is not connected to the grid, so battery storage is required. Off-grid solar system must be properly designed to generate sufficient power throughout the year and have sufficient battery capacity to meet the requirements of the home, even in the depths of winter, when the sun is shining less. The high cost of batteries and inverters means that off-grid systems are much more expensive than on-grid systems and are therefore normally only needed in remote areas far from any electricity grid. However, battery costs are rapidly reducing, so there is a growing market for off-grid solar battery systems even in small towns and cities.

  • Power bank. There is no public electricity grid in an off-grid solar system. When solar energy is used by private equipment, any excess power is sent to your battery bank. When the battery bank is charged, the solar system stops receiving power.

  • Generator backup. For times of the year when the batteries are low in charge and the weather is very cloudy, a backup power source such as a backup generator or a DG set is usually required. The DG size (in kVA) should be suitable for supplying your house and charging the batteries in the sam.

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